It’s clear to most that the Internet, and related technology advancements, provides significant benefits for individuals, enterprises & governments. However, as global connectivity has grown, so has cyber threat. This’s why Microsoft, along with ecosystem at large, works to combat cyber threat and help protect customers through a variety of mechanisms, including using SDL, and Security Intelligence Report and working with partners throughout industry to tackle specific threats like botnets. Specifically, I outline six distinct factors that I believe make understanding and quantifying cyber threats a challenge: Actors: there’re many. Malicious actors include individuals, organized crime groups, terrorist groups, and nation-states; Motives may relate to traditional areas of criminal activity, economic espionage, military espionage or cyber warfare; Attacks: they often look alike. Different actors may use similar techniques, such as DDoS attacks. This means the nature of an attack mayn’t yield reliable clues about the identity of attacker and/or his or her motives[…],” writes Scott Charney.