Google announced the "completion of a new web indexing system called "Caffeine," which provides 50% fresher results for web searches than our last index, and it's the largest collection of web content we've offered. Whether it's a news story, a blog or a forum post, you can now find links to relevant content much sooner after it is published than was possible ever before. Caffeine lets us index web pages on an enormous scale. In fact, every second Caffeine processes hundreds of thousands of pages in parallel. If this were a pile of paper it would grow three miles taller every second. Caffeine takes up nearly 100 million gigabytes of storage in one database and adds new information at a rate of hundreds of thousands of gigabytes per day. You would need 625,000 of the largest iPods to store that much information; if these were stacked end-to-end they would go for more than 40 miles," noted Google.
Caffeine analyze the web in small portions and update our search index on a continuous basis, globally.
The image below illustrates how our old indexing system worked compared to Caffeine:
More Info: Google Index