Jeremiah Andrick published about “the best ways to go global with your website contents to target the right audience, the problems faced by search engines, understanding geotargeting because of a few technical limitations.
Best practices: 1. Target the location with geographic keywords; 2. Be consistent in the language you write; 3. Group your localized content by the TLD, subdomain, or subfolder; for e.g.: www.domain.ca or ca.domain.com or www.domain.com/ca-fr/