Android Cloud to Device Messaging (C2DM) service helps developers send data from servers to their apps on Android devices. "The service provides a simple, lightweight mechanism that servers can use to tell mobile apps to contact server directly, to fetch updated app or user data." C2DM service handles all aspects of queueing of messages &delivery to target app running on target device.
"A simple useage is to send a link, phone numbers and text from web browser to Android device using Chrome to Phone browser extension, you need to install Android App. Also "Send to phone" Firefox extension offers similar features, but it also adds an option to contextual menu, to save you from clicking toolbar button to send text," writes Alex.
Here're things that you can try: » send Google Maps link and Google Maps app from your phone should handle it » send YouTube video link and the video should start playing on your phone » copy phone number from a web page and send it to your phone » copy short text from a web page (<1KB) and send it to your phone's clipboard.